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Theory of Change

7 principles of a Theory of Change

A good theory of change (ToC) is based on seven principles: 1. Repeat doing it until you get it right, 2. links are as important as expected changes, 3. risk and assumptions are key, 4. it must be scalable, 5. it is not a results chain, 6. organisations often already have ToCs in place which […]

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Planning Results Based Management

A Theory of Change

Probably as an inevitable result of the buzz in the past few years, many Theories of Change are often useless. One reason for that is – is my feeling – that they are typically not developed in a logical sequence: without a thorough problem analysis, with a possible intervention already in mind, just as the […]

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Planning for M&E Results Based Management

The result chain: a beginner’s guide

Monitoring and Evaluation is about measuring and tracking results. That is why it is important to understand what results are, and how to distinguish between different levels of the results chain. In general, a “result” is something that happens or exists because of something else that has happened: the results of a football game the final value of a mathematical calculation, or the outcomes of an election. In development and governance, […]